2. The Two Modes Of Thinking Regarding Cause And Effect

Divine Providence (Ager)251 (4)​… for all things that take place in the natural world correspond to spiritual things in the spiritual world, and every thing spiritual has relation to the church.​

​Arcana Coelestia (Potts) 3721(2)​. It appears to man that the objects of the world enter through his bodily or external senses, and affect the interiors; and thus that there is an entrance from the ultimate of order into what is within; but that this is a mere appearance and fallacy is manifest from the general rule that posterior things cannot flow into prior; or what is the same, lower things into higher; or what is the same, exterior things into interior; or what is still the same, the things which are of the world and of nature into those which are of heaven and of spirit; for the former are of a grosser nature, and the latter of a purer one; and those grosser things which are of the external or natural man come forth and subsist from those which are of the internal or rational man; and they cannot affect the purer things, but are affected by the purer things. How the case is with this influx, inasmuch as the very appearance and fallacy persuade altogether contrary to it, will of the Lord’s Divine mercy be told hereafter when treating on the subject of influx. From this then it is said that through the ultimate in which order closes, there is apparently as it were an entrance from nature.​

Arcana Coelestia (Potts) 3483​. Whatever is seen anywhere in the universe is representative of the Lord’s kingdom, insomuch that there is not anything in the atmospheric and starry universe, or in the earth and its three kingdoms, which is not in its own manner representative. All things in nature, in both general and particular, are ultimate images, inasmuch as from the Divine are celestial things which are of good, from celestial things spiritual things which are of truth, and from both celestial and spiritual things are natural things. From this it is evident how gross, nay, how earthly and also inverted is that human intelligence which ascribes everything to nature separate or exempt from an influx prior to itself, or from an efficient cause. Moreover they who so think and speak seem to themselves to be wiser than others; that is, in attributing all things to nature, when yet on the contrary angelic intelligence consists in ascribing nothing to nature, but all and everything to the Divine of the Lord, thus to life, and not to anything dead. The learned know that subsistence is a perpetual coming forth; but still it is contrary to the affection of falsity and thence to a reputation for learning to say that nature continually subsists, as it originally came into existence, from the Divine of the Lord. Inasmuch therefore as each and all things subsist, that is, continually come forth, from the Divine, and as each and all things thence derived must needs be representative of those things whereby they came into existence, it follows that the visible universe is nothing else than a theater representative of the Lord’s kingdom; and that this kingdom is a theater representative of the Lord Himself.

​Arcana Coelestia 8211 (Potts)​ 8211(2) … for whatever exists in the natural world has its origin and cause from things which exist in the spiritual world, because universal nature is nothing else than a theater representative of the Lord’s kingdom (34 3483, 4939, 5173, 5962); whence come the correspondences. The variations of light and shade and also of heat and cold on earth are indeed from the sun, that is, from the difference of its altitudes, every year and every day, in the several regions of the earth; but these causes, which are proximate, and in the natural world, were created according to the things in the spiritual world, as by their prior and efficient causes, which are the causes of the posterior causes that exist in the natural world. For nothing which is in order ever exists in the natural world that does not derive its cause and origin from the spiritual world, that is, through the spiritual world from the Divine.

Heaven and Hell (Ager) 89. The whole natural world corresponds to the spiritual world, and not merely the natural world in general, but also every particular of it; and as a consequence everything in the natural world that springs from the spiritual world is called a correspondent. It must be understood that the natural world springs from and has permanent existence from the spiritual world, precisely like an effect from its effecting cause. All that is spread out under the sun and that receives heat and light from the sun is what is called the natural world; and all things that derive their subsistence therefrom belong to that world. But the spiritual world is heaven; and all things in the heavens belong to that world.​

Arcana Coelestia (Potts) 2991. That natural things represent spiritual things, and that they correspond, may also be known from the fact that what is natural cannot possibly come forth except from a cause prior to itself. Its cause is from what is spiritual; and there is nothing natural which does not thence derive its cause. Natural forms are effects; nor can they appear as causes, still less as causes of causes, or beginnings; but they receive their forms according to the use in the place where they are; and yet the forms of the effects represent the things which are of the causes; and indeed these latter things represent those which are of the beginnings. Thus all natural things represent those which are of the spiritual things to which they correspond; and in fact the spiritual things also represent those which are of the celestial things from which they are.​

Arcana Coelestia (Potts) 10199 ​. For all things which are perceived by man through the organs of sense signify spiritual things, which bear relation to the good of love and to the truths of faith, as do smell, taste, sight, hearing, and touch; hence “smell” signifies the perceptivity of interior truth from the good of love; “taste” signifies the perception and affection of knowing and of being wise; “sight,” the understanding of the truths of faith; “hearing,” perceptivity from the good of faith, and from obedience; and “touch” in general, communication, transfer, and reception.

[2] The reason of this is that all external sensations derive their origin from internal sensations which are of the understanding and will, thus in man from the truths of faith and from the good of love, for these constitute the understanding and the will of man. But the internal sensations, which are proper to the understanding and will with man, have not that sense which the external sensations have, but are turned into such when they flow in; for all things made sensible to man by the external organs of sense, flow in from internal things, because all influx is from internal things into external, but not the reverse. For there is no such thing as physical influx, that is, influx from the natural world into the spiritual, but only from the spiritual world into the natural. The interiors of man which belong to his understanding and will are in the spiritual world, and his externals which belong to the senses of the body are in the natural world. From this also it can be seen what correspondence is, and what is its nature.

Conjugial Love (Acton) 440​ … it is not the flesh that sensates the things which happen in the flesh, but the spirit. It is the same with this sense as with the others. Thus it is not the eye that sees and distinguishes the varieties in objects, but the spirit. So neither is it the ear that hears and distinguishes the harmonies of melodies in song, and the fitness of the articulation of sounds in speech, but the spirit. And the spirit sensates everything according to its own elevation into wisdom. The spirit which is not elevated above the sensual things of the body and so sticks in them, sensates no other delights than those which flow in from the flesh, and from the world through the senses of the body. These it seizes upon, with these it is delighted, and these it make its own. ​

​Divine Love and Wisdom (Ager) 69. There are two things proper to nature – space and time. From these man in the natural world forms the ideas of his thought, and thereby his understanding. If he remains in these ideas, and does not raise his mind above them, he is in no wise able to perceive things spiritual and Divine, for these he involves in ideas drawn from space and time; and so far as that is done the light [lumen] of his understanding becomes merely natural. To think from this lumen in reasoning about spiritual and Divine things, is like thinking from the thick darkness of night about those things that appear only in the light of day. From this comes naturalism. But he who knows how to raise his mind above ideas of thought drawn from space and time, passes from thick darkness into light, and has discernment in things spiritual and Divine, and finally sees the things which are in and from what is spiritual and Divine; and then from that light he dispels the thick darkness of the natural lumen, and banishes its fallacies from the middle to the sides. Every man who has understanding is able to transcend in thought these properties of nature, and actually does so; and he then affirms and sees that the Divine, because omnipresent, is not in space. He is also able to affirm and to see the things that have been adduced above. But if he denies the Divine Omnipresence, and ascribes all things to nature, then he has no wish to be elevated, though he can be.​

Apocalypse Explained (Whitehead) 527​. For every man has a lower or exterior mind, and a higher or interior mind; the lower or exterior mind is the natural mind, which is called the natural man, while the higher or interior mind is the spiritual mind, and is called the spiritual man. The mind is called a man, for the reason that man is man because of his mind. These two minds, the higher and the lower, are altogether distinct; by the lower mind man is in the natural world, together with the men there, but by the higher mind he is in the spiritual world with the angels there.​

These two minds are so distinct that while man is living in the world he does not know what is going on in himself in his higher mind; and when he becomes a spirit, as he does immediately after death, he does not know what is going on in his lower mind; therefore it is said “God divided between the light and the darkness, and He called the light day, and the darkness night.” This makes evident that “day” signifies spiritual light, and “darkness” natural light. ​

​Arcana Coelestia (Potts) 8918​… the thoughts and their ideas with man are founded upon spaces and times, insomuch that man cannot think without them. Consequently if you abstract times and spaces from a man’s thought, he scarcely perceives anything. Nevertheless the angels in heaven think absolutely without any idea of time and space, and with such fullness that in intelligence and wisdom their thoughts surpass the thoughts of man thousands, nay, myriads of times; and, wonderful to say, if there occurs to them an idea derived from time and space, shade and thick darkness at once come to their minds, because they then fall from the light of heaven into the light of nature, which to them is thick darkness.​

​ ​Arcana Coelestia (Potts) 4850​. As state and change of state are so often mentioned, and as few know what is meant, it will be well to explain. Time and the succession of time, or space and the extension of space, cannot be predicated of man’s interiors, that is, of his affections and the thoughts therefrom; because these interiors are not in time nor in place-although to the senses in the world it appears as if they were-but are in interior things which correspond to time and place. These interior things which correspond we have to call states, because there is no other word by which these corresponding things can be expressed.​

​​​Arcana Coelestia (Potts) 3887​. These things will necessarily appear to man as paradoxical, from his having no other idea of the good of love and the truth of faith than that they are certain abstract things without the power of effecting anything, when yet the contrary is true, namely, that all perception and sensation, and all energy and action, even in man on earth, are from the good of love and the truth of faith.​

​​Arcana Coelestia (Potts) 5373(3) … during man’s regeneration as to the natural, goods and truths are one and all brought together into memory-knowledges. Those which are not in the memory-knowledges there, are not in the natural; for the natural mind, as regards that part of it which is subject to the understanding, consists solely of memory-knowledges. The memory-knowledges that belong to the natural are the ultimates of order, and things prior must be in ultimates in order to come into existence and to appear in that sphere; and besides this all prior things tend to ultimates as to their boundaries or ends, and come into existence together therein as causes do in their effects, or as higher things do in lower as in their vessels. The memory-knowledges of the natural are such ultimates. Hence it is that the spiritual world is terminated in man’s natural, in which the things of the spiritual world are representatively presented. Unless spiritual things were presented representatively in the natural, thus by such things as are in the world, they would not be apprehended at all. From all this it is evident that during the regeneration of the natural all interior truths and goods, which are from the spiritual world, are brought into memory-knowledges, in order that they may appear.

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